Spain is a country with a rich and varied history. Its landscape is dotted with castles, churches, palaces, and other monuments, all testaments to the country’s long and vibrant past. Over the centuries, the Iberian Peninsula has been occupied by the Moors, Visigoths, and Celts, among other peoples. Each group has left its mark on Spanish folklore, language, and culture. Let’s learn more about the history of Spain and its impact on modern society.

Ancient History

Spain’s history dates back to the Paleolithic period, with evidence of human settlements as early as 800,000 BC. Islamic forces invaded and created a significant presence in Spain in the middle ages, which influenced the country’s language, culture, and architecture. The Reconquista ended in 1492 with Granada’s downfall and Christianity’s introduction to Spain.

During the 16th century, Spain began an empire-building program that eventually became one of the most powerful nations in Europe. The 16th and 17th centuries were considered “the golden age” of Spanish culture as new ideas in painting and literature took shape while its empire stretched across South America and Asia. However, in 1714, Great Britain defeated Spain in a war that ended its world-spanning empire.

As a result of its losses during these wars, Spain became politically unstable for much of the 19th century until Francisco Franco rose to power in 1939. During Franco’s rule, he sought to restore hierarchy throughout Spanish society. After he died in 1975, Spain transitioned from a dictatorship into a democracy, leading to economic prosperity and social progress through increased civil rights for its citizens. Today Spain is one of the most diverse countries on earth, filled with incredible historical sites from all parts of its past, including Roman ruins like those found at Merida and Segovia; Moorish palaces such as Alhambra; Medieval neighborhoods like Albayzin; Baroque style cathedral buildings such as La Sagrada Familia; Modern art galleries like El Prado; and vibrant city centers such as Madrid & Barcelona.

Roman Rule

Roman rule in the Iberian Peninsula started around the 2nd century B.C., and the Romans brought with them their language, religion, customs, and culture. Later on, in 19 BC, Augustus divided Hispania (the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) into three provinces: Baetica (Andalusia), Lusitania (Portugal-Extremadura), and Tarraconensis (the rest of Spain). During this period, Visigoths settled in some parts of the peninsula.

In 409 AD, Rome withdrew troops from Hispania as part of its general crisis. Consequently, barbarian tribes such as Alans and Suevians invaded the peninsula, claiming to find their kingdoms. This period is known as The Invasions.

Meanwhile, during this unstable time, many towns along with their people would be reunited to form civic entities united under one name or aim; thus, King Wamba was able to unite Galicians and Asturianos under a single flag, thus creating “The Kingdom of Asturias,” which is considered as the beginning of what we know today as one nation: Spain.

Medieval Period

The Medieval period in Spain saw much Islamic influence and rule as Muslims ruled from 711 to 1492 in several sections known as taifas. This was a time of great dynamism, during which art, culture, economics, and education developments took place despite intermittent warfare and civil strife.

Important political events during this period include the union of the small Christian kingdoms in 1479 to form the kingdom of Castile, which gradually increased its control over other territories within Spain. In addition to Islamic influences on Spanish civilization, political upheaval overwhelmed the Spanish mainland with various Muslim immigrants who created their states and fought among themselves instead.

From an economic standpoint, livestock breeding flourished and was encouraged by the local markets’ development. The transhumance phenomenon – biannual migration to graze animals – was already established as part of an agricultural system adapted to Mediterranean climate variability. As part of cultural diffusion processes brought about by both Arabic-speaking Muslims and Christian Europeans moving into Spain from southern Europe and northern Europe, respectively, a rich diversity of influences affected Spanish civilization between 800 CE (Common Era) and 1492 CE (the year Christopher Columbus made his famous landfall in North America).


Spain is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It borders France and the Bay of Biscay in the north, Portugal in the west, and the Mediterranean Sea in the southeast. Spain is the second-largest country in Western Europe, just behind France. Its capital city, Madrid, is located in the central part of the country. The geography of Spain is incredibly diverse, with a wide variety of landscapes, climates, and vegetation. Let’s take a look at some of the interesting facts about Spain’s geography.


Spain is located in Southwest Europe, bordered by France, Andorra, and Portugal. It is situated in the Iberian Peninsula and comprises most Balearic Islands, Melilla, Ceuta, and the Canary Islands. Spanning an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 mi2), it is the 4th largest country in Europe and the second most populous county after Germany.

The mainland of Spain forms part of Southwestern Europe along with Italy, France, and Portugal. Its northern border follows along the Pyrenees mountains, which separate it from France. In contrast, its southern border follows along the Mediterranean coast, with its major cities, such as Barcelona, lying to its eastern side. The countries of Andorra and Portugal form their western boundaries while its major cities, such as Madrid, lie to its interior south-central regions.

Its climate varies greatly due to its location between mountains to its north that block cold air masses from Scandinavia and continental plains south of France, which are prone to frequent heat waves during summer. As a result, a warm, humid subtropical climate is observed in low-lying areas along coasts like those around Barcelona or Valencia. Higher altitude regions like Madrid experience continental climate with greater temperature ranges. Snowfall is common throughout mountainous areas in winter. At the same time, rainfall can vary dramatically along coastlines being significantly more frequent in northern compared to southern locales due to mountain ranges blocking precipitation from Atlantic winds, which largely bring moisture into mainland Spain.


Spain features a diverse climate from season to season and is the product of several geographic characteristics. The country’s terrain consists mostly of highlands and mountainous regions, making for dramatic landscapes and interestingly varied weather patterns.

The northern region of Spain sees cold temperatures with plentiful precipitation in the winter months and a warm Mediterranean climate in the summertime. Areas in Central Spain to the west experience a different balance with rainfall over the year while staying slightly cooler overall than in other regions. Moving further south, temperatures become much more extreme across both hemispheres, reaching very high levels in summer months and staying warm with mild winters.

The Azores High and Siberian High are two factors that significantly affect Spain’s climate and temperatures due to its geographic location on Europe’s Iberian Peninsula. The intense sunshine combined with favorable oceanic circulations helps create dry summers along the coast while allowing certain inland mountain regions enough moisture to stay lush year-round with flourishing vegetation.


Spain is home to several distinct landforms, including coastal plains, mountain ranges, and more. The country’s center is a plateau known as the Meseta Central, which features a diverse range of landscapes, from flat plains to gentle hills and mountains.

The Pyrenees mountain range runs along the border between Spain and France, providing dramatic terrain for hiking, skiing, climbing, and other outdoor activities. The Sierra Nevada near Granada forms the highest peak in all of Spain, with an elevation of up to 11,000 feet above sea level. The Ebre River Delta in Catalonia is home to ecosystems found nowhere else. It contains large wetlands with thousands of bird species, making it one of Spain’s most important nature reserves.

In the southern half of Spain lies the Andalusian Plain, which stretches into Portugal with multi-colored mountains rolling over them in an unmistakable scene that has inspired poets and artists for centuries. The Balearic Islands, located off the Mediterranean coast, provide mild Mediterranean climates throughout their islands, while its small coves offer some seclusion from mainland Spain.

The Sierra de Gador straddles both provinces of Almería and Murcia. At the same time, its expansive parks protect this mountain range’s unique ecosystem that includes shrubland, meadows, and thickets full of wildlife like ibexes or lynxes among numerous species of birds that have been documented nesting here for decades or longer.

Finally, Las Batuecas-Sierra de Francia Natural Park, located at Castilla y Leon, was declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1989, making it historically significant due to its local caves filled with prehistoric rock art from peoples who inhabited this region as far back as 5300 BC adding cultural appreciation value to its natural beauty making it one of the most popular destinations in Northern Spain due to its unparalleled landscape views that stretch across five different providences in this unique part of Europe.


Spain has a rich culture steeped in history, tradition, and cuisine. Spanish culture is based on the Spanish language, full of unique customs and traditions. Spanish culture is fascinating, from the siesta to traditional bullfighting and from Flamenco to tapas. This section will explore the various aspects of Spanish culture, including art, music, and food.


The official language of Spain is Spanish, also known as Castilian. It is the native language across most countries, except in the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia. In addition, several other languages are recognized as official regional languages; Catalan, Galician, and Basque. With this combination of languages, Spain’s rich linguistic diversity continues to evolve and be enjoyed today.

In addition to the three main languages spoken in Spain, several other dialects are also used in different parts of the country. Some common dialects include Aranese (spoken in the Aran Valley), Asturian (in Asturias), and Leonese (in Leon). These dialects often contain elements from both local Spanish culture and their regional language counterparts. Additionally, various minority groups within Spain speak their distinct languages, including Moorish in Aragon and Valencian in Valenciana.

Although Spanish remains the de facto language of communication throughout most of Spain’s regions, bilingualism is becoming increasingly common, with many youths speaking both Spanish and a regional language such as Catalan or Basque. This linguistic diversity is one factor that makes for an interesting cultural mosaic in modern-day Spain!


Spanish cuisine has had a long history and is incredibly varied, as it has been strongly influenced by its neighboring countries – the Mediterranean and North African cultures. Most dishes combine fish, legumes, vegetables, tomatoes, potatoes, and olives. This is why many dishes from Spain use these ingredients to create original recipes. Paella is a good example of traditional Spanish cuisine in which one can find seafood like mussels, shrimp, or squid cooked in rice with olive oil and spices. Gazpacho is another popular Spanish dish with tomato, garlic, onion, and bell pepper blended in a cold soup.

Some other dishes popular in Spain include tortilla de patatas (potato omelet), salmorejo (cold tomato soup), cocido madrileño (stewed beans), or callos (tripe) accompanied with vegetables such as spinach or chard. Potatoes are also widely used in Spanish cuisine, especially stews that feature pork or beef as the main ingredients. Spaniards also enjoy consuming variations of cured ham such as Iberico ham, Serrano ham, or lomo embuchado, often served along typical side dishes like breadsticks or olives.


Music is a core pillar of Spanish culture, and Spain has produced musical styles ranging from Flamenco and classical to modern pop ballads that continue to dominate the charts.

The country’s most iconic musical style is Flamenco, which originated in Andalusia during the 18th century. Featuring passionate vocal lines accompanied by unique strumming guitar patterns, this highly personal music genre has resonated around the world throughout the years. As a result, Flamenco has been widely studied and remains an important part of national heritage today.

Spain also boasts one of Europe’s prolific Classical traditions — especially during the late Renaissance period when well-known composers such as Felipe de la Púa, Antonio de Cabezón, and Juan del Encina helped instill a profound sense of identity within Spanish music. Their works are sometimes referred to as ‘Culto al Key’ or ‘cultivating keys’ since it was common for leading figures from this era to express their emotional states through intricate keyboard compositions.

In addition, modern styles such as Rock, Pop, and Hip-hop have become increasingly popular among young Spaniards in recent decades. These styles often blend in regional beats from other countries and heavy electronic influences — creating a unique sonic palette for contemporary musicians to explore. From regional competitions to internationally renowned acts like Esne Beltza and Estopa, there is something for everyone in Spain’s powerful music scene today.


Spain is a diverse country populated with people from many different backgrounds. With the long history of Spain, you’ll find people who have roots in the Iberian Peninsula, the Mediterranean, and European countries. You’ll also find diverse cultures and traditions throughout the country. In this article, we’ll explore some of the people who make up Spain and the fascinating facts about them.


Spain is one of the most populous countries in Europe, with a population estimated to be around 46.77 million people as of 2019. It is the fifth-largest nation in the European Union and the second-largest country in southern Europe after Italy. The population of Spain has increased steadily over the past few decades, fueled by immigration, but population growth has slowed in recent years.

Spain’s diverse population includes many minorities and ethnic groups, including Jews, Muslims, Roma, and Afro-Spaniards. The majority of its citizens consider themselves Roman Catholic, although a significant number of Protestants, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and other religious groups are present. The official language of Spain is Spanish, although several other languages are spoken across different regions, such as Basque, Galician, and Catalan.


Most Spanish population identifies as Roman Catholic, making the country one of the most religious in Europe. According to figures from 2019, around 73 percent of the population considered themselves Catholic, and 2 percent belonged to other religions. The remaining 25 percent declared themselves non-believers or did not specify any religion.

As a result of its long history and resistance to change, Spain remains a largely conservative nation with a deep respect for authority and tradition. Although there has been some progress in acceptance and religious tolerance over recent years, such as authorities allowing protests by atheist groups against religious symbols displayed in public affairs, legends and superstitions are still part of everyday life for many Spaniards.

The main festival celebrated in Spain is Semana Santa, or Holy Week, which corresponds with the week leading up to Easter Sunday. It is considered one of the most important festivities of the year for Catholics across Europe. Other traditional holidays include Christmas Eve (Nochebuena) on December 24th and New Year’s Eve (Nochevieja) on December 31st. As is common practice throughout Europe, some businesses will close during certain holidays, or interrupted service times may be established.

Ethnic Groups

In Spain, various ethnic groups have contributed to societal and cultural diversity for centuries. As a result, the country’s population is made up of the following ethnic groups largely based on geographic area:

Castilian: By far the largest group in Spain, Castilians primarily settle in the central region of Spain and claim ancestries from the Celtic and Iberian peoples. Castilians are known for their intense sense of morality, passion for their culture, and achievements, especially in literature such as Don Quixote.

Galician: Located along mainland Spain’s north-western Pacific coast, Galicians trace their roots to Celtic tribes that populated the area around 2200 B.C. In addition to a strong sense of identity linked to music, languages, cuisine, and folklore, Galicians are also renowned for their entrepreneurial spirit, which has seen them achieve remarkable social mobility since modern times since the mid-20th century.

Catalans: Catalonia is a semi-autonomous Spanish province located in north-east Spain bordering France with its own distinct identity encompassing its language Catalonia as well as its traditions, culture, and customs like La Castanyada (Mid-Autumn festival). Catalan is increasingly being used alongside Spanish as an official language within more contexts as many members of this community push for increased autonomy from Spain.

Basques: Traceable back from before 824 A.D., Basques identify with a language that doesn’t belong to any other Indo-European family, making it truly unique within Europe itself! Moreover, due to the culture’s ancient roots, many find resonance with an affinity towards nature intertwined with a spiritual connection between themselves & mother earth or the land they originate from – often seen expressed artistically through dances such as basque dance or albondigues de txistorra (pork sausages).


Spain is well known for its tourism, with more than 83 million international tourists visiting the country annually. With its unique culture, cuisine, and history, it is easy to see why this country is referred to as the “Honeymoon Destination of the World.” Tourists come from around the globe to experience the beauty of Spain, making it one of the most visited countries in the world. Let’s explore further what makes Spain a desirable tourist destination.

Popular Destinations

Spain is renowned for its beautiful coasts and beaches, stunning mountain ranges, exquisite cuisine, and ancient cities full of character. Many of these destinations are considered by tourists to be some of the most popular in Europe — seeing a steady stream of worldwide visitors each year. So whether you’re seeking vibrant nightlife or gorgeous views, there are plenty of places to explore in Spain.

Some must-see destinations include:

-Barcelona: With Gaudí’s famous architecture, fantastic nightlife, and distinctive Catalan culture, such as La Sagrada Familia at its heart, it’s no surprise that Barcelona is one of the most visited cities in Europe.

-Madrid: The capital city of Madrid offers some of the best shopping and entertainment in the country, with a wide range of museums and galleries to visit, such as The Prado Museum. Here you can admire works by Spanish masters such as Velázquez, El Greco, Goya, and more.

-Granada: Home to one of Spain’s greatest architectural treasures — The Alhambra — Granada also offers many other sights to explore, including The Alcaicería market, which was founded way back in Moorish times!

-Seville: Known for its Baroque buildings and exotic gardens typical of Andalusia culture with fervent Flamenco music filling Spanish plazas each night, Seville is an ideal destination for discovering true Spanish culture!

-San Sebastian: With world-class restaurants and breathtaking scenery overlooking rolling hills and cascading rivers, San Sebastian should be the top for travelers eager for culinary delights!

From iconic landmarks to small secret spots off the beaten path, there’s something for everyone in this sun-drenched Mediterranean paradise! No matter where your destination may be within Spain’s fascinating landscape, one thing stands true – you won’t go hungry here! Bon appetite!


Spain offers plenty of activities for everyone, from active outdoor types to those seeking some peaceful relaxation. Furthermore, the terrain and climate vary from region to region, making it possible to experience different activities in different places.

For those who love nature, Spain is one of the best countries for admiring the great outdoors. Whether it’s climbing a mountain, canoeing on a river, strolling along miles of beaches, or hiking through olive groves, there is something for every traveler.

To learn more about Spanish culture and history, visitors can explore one of many unique cities like Madrid and Barcelona. In addition, travelers can discover cathedrals and museums while soaking up the vibrant nightlife and traditional cuisine.

For those looking to relax in natural surroundings, plenty of spas offer pampering treatments such as massage therapy and spa wraps. Wellness centers also provide accessible space for yoga classes or meditation sessions.

For a truly memorable experience, you can take part in a Spanish festival – from Easter processions in Andalusia to bear-fighting celebrations further north; plenty of colorful festivities occur all across Spain throughout the year.

No matter what type of activity you’re interested in pursuing during your visit to Spain – outdoor exploration or cultural immersion – this sunny country has something for everyone!


Spain, with its welcoming culture and numerous attractions, is a paradise for tourists looking for an ideal vacation spot. The country has abundant accommodations that cater to many different tastes and interests. Hotels come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges – from luxury five-star resorts on stunning seascapes to smaller family-run boutique establishments near the city center. Resorts and pensions offer the perfect solution if you are looking for a more traditional and cultural experience, or perhaps you would like to stay in one of the many hostels available that offer shared rooms for Thrifty travelers. Apartments for rent provide an added level of home comfort alongside spectacular Spanish architecture.